Alternatively referred to as a numeric coprocessor or a floating-point coprocessor, the math coprocessor is an optional processor add-on for the Intel 8086, 80386 and 80486 processors that allowed a computer to perform mathematical calculations more efficiently and faster, increasing the overall speed of a computer in many places. Today, all computer processors are released with a math coprocessor incorporated onto the processor. Below is a listing of earlier computer processors and their coprocessors.
A high-capacity floppy disk drive developed by Iomega Corporation. Zip disks are slightly larger than conventional floppy disks, and about twice as thick. They can hold 100 or 250 MB of data. Because they’re relatively inexpensive and durable, they have become a popular media for backing up hard disksand for transporting large files.
A Zip drive is a small, portable disk drive used primarily for backing up and archiving personal computer files. The trademarked Zip drive was developed and is sold by Iomega Corporation. Zip drives and disks come in two sizes. The 100 megabyte size actually holds 100,431,872 bytes of data or the equivalent of 70 floppy diskettes. There is also a 250 megabyte drive and disk. The Iomega Zip drive comes with a software utility that lets you copy the entire contents of your hard drive to one or more Zip disks.
In addition to data backup, Iomega suggests these additional uses:
The Zip drive can be purchased in either a parallel or a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) version. In the parallel version, a printer can be chained off the Zip drive so that both can be plugged into your computer’s parallel port.
Question No: (1) Define computers? Why computer is known as data processing system?
What are the basic operations of Computer?
Answer: Computer: A computer is a programmable machine or device that performs pre-defined
or programmed computations or controls operations that are expressible in numerical or logical
terms at high speed and with great accuracy.
Computer is a fast operating electronic device, which automatically accepts and store input data,
processes them and produces results under the direction of step by step program.
Any Process that uses a computer program will enter data and summarize, analyze or otherwise
convert data into usable information. The process may be automated and run on a computer.
It involves recording, analyzing, sorting, summarizing, calculating, disseminating and storing data. Thus
Computer is known as data processing system.
Its various operations are:
1) It accepts data or instructions by way of input.
2) It stores data.
3) It can process data as required by the user.
4) It gives results in the form of output.
What Are the Functions of a Coprocessor Chip?
Coprocessor chips, also known as floating-point units or FPUs, numeric processors and math processors, are found in many computers. They are located inside of a microprocessor and are composed of a series of special circuits; However, during the primitive era of computers, they were separate from the microprocessor.
1) Identify different forms of technical writing?
Types of Technical Writing
Technical writing is a broad term that encompasses different types of technical documents used for specific purposes in various fields such as business, science, engineering, industries, construction, etc. Technical document is written keeping focus on the type of audience being targeted. The main aspects of this form of writing are:
Reports are made at all levels from students to business people, for various purposes. Perfect format and layout are very important factors in a report, as it contains the complete information of any project. Wide knowledge pertaining to the subject of the report is absolutely necessary for any author. It requires intense research and data analysis. Some types of reports are:
Let’s take an example of a complete and well-written academic report. The format of such a report should have:
The presentation model depends upon the intended audience, whether they are internal audience or external audience. A presentation can be made using equipment and graphical aids such as flip charts, tables, transparencies, bar graphs, slides, multimedia objects, pie charts, dry erase boards, line drawings, handouts, physical objects, etc. the basic requirements in a good presentation document is:
The user manuals are the set of instructions or explanations written to help the reader, understand some software application or any system. The important criteria of a properly written user manual are simple language, because it is mostly targeted for non-technical people. Mainly, to understand the troubleshooting techniques, people refer to the user manual. So, the writer should cover all the minute details of the product and the troubleshooting tricks. The difficult terms should be well explained and made easy. The one important chapter in the user manual is frequently Asked Questions (FAQ).
Executive summary is an important communication tool used by academicians and business people. Executive summaries are basically documents that contains the summary of reports, so that the reader is acquainted with the required knowledge, without reading the large body of the report. Executive summary documents are widely used in management sectors like sales & marketing, accounts & finance, etc. Executive summary documents mostly contains the summary of the problems of the service or the product. The typical structure of an executive summary should be 10% of the report from which it is derived. Concise analysis of the report is made and final conclusions are drawn from it. Executive summary is different from abstracts, in a way that, abstracts are short and it just provides the overview of a large document, whereas, reports can be replaced with executive summaries, as it contains the condensed version of the report. A good executive summary should be presented in the order given below:
Abstracts are basically, a concise and brief guide of a report that summarizes the whole report, which is mainly addressed to technical readers. There are two important types of abstracts. They are:
Spec sheet is an information sheet that, illustrates the construction and manufacturing process. Spec sheet documents are widely used especially in mechanical, instrumentation, architecture, production and manufacturing industries. The spec sheets are mainly targeting to the contractors, who will analyze the information and the package which includes all the required schematics and they would estimate the scope and expertise required for the completion of the project. After studying the spec sheet data, bid sheet will be prepared.
The proposals are persuasive documents that are made to provide solutions, recommendations and needs regarding to the problems concerning a product or service. It is a narrative work that is made to bring out successful sales experience. The good proposal should be made in such a way that, it should be “as easy as possible to digest”. Many business people say that, writing a proposal is an art and it should be persuasive and rational as well. The proposals can be formal or informal.
Employment document is mainly referred to as resumes, follow-up letter, resignation letter. The employment documents are prepared from the employer’s perspective. Follow-up letter is written by a candidate, to thank the employer for the conducted interview and to express his continuing interests in the job. Resignation letter is a professional courtesy letter to inform the current employer that you are resigning from your job and the reasons for your resignation. Resume is another employment document produced by a candidate, who is seeking for a new job. The essential requirements of a well prepared resume are:
There are three main types of resumes, depending on the context. They are:
Questionnaire is a document that contains a list of questions that are targeted to the readers, in order to gather information from the respondents. It may be for the purpose of survey or to get statistical data. The modes of questionnaire administration are paper-and-pencil mode, computerized mode and face-to-face administration mode. The questions in a questionnaire are basically targeted to get information on preferences, behavior, facts and guidelines.
Tools Used in this Form of Writing
2) Write readable correspondence?
Correspondence is the primary means to communicate both within and outside the Coast Guard. It refers to letters, memoranda, messages, electronic mail (E-mail), and directives. Since most of our communications are conducted through the written word, it is important to compose correspondence that is cordial, responsive, correctly written, and concise. All correspondence prepared by the Coast Guard should reflect a positive image of the Service.
Business letter margins should be about 1″ all around. This gives your professional letter an uncluttered look. You should align your text to the left; this is how most documents are aligned, so it will make your letter readable.
Leaving space in your letter creates a clear, uncluttered and easy to read look that the reader will appreciate. Your letter should be in block format: the entire letter should be aligned to the left and single-spaced except for a double space between paragraphs.
The traditional font size for a professional letter is 12. The font should be Times New Roman or Arial. However, if you are using a letterhead, the letterhead may be in a different font size and style.
There is no need to use different styles within a professional letter. Use a uniform font (a book print font such as Times New Roman or Arial) and avoid underlining, italicizing, or bolding. However, if you are using a letterhead, the letterhead may be in a different font style.
Business letter text should be clean and readable. Avoid writing your letter in one large block of text. Break your text into several concise paragraphs. These paragraphs should be aligned to the left; this allows for easier reading. When you have completed your letter, ask someone else to read it for you. Have them glance briefly at the letter. Is there too much text on the page? Is it easy to see the distinct paragraphs?
The first section of your letter should include your contact information and the contact information of the person you are writing, too. Also include the date you are writing at the top of your letter.
unless you know the reader well and typically address them by their first name, you should include the person’s personal title and full name in the salutation (i.e. “Dear Mr. James Franklin”). If you are unsure of the reader’s name, include his or her title (i.e. “Dear Executive of Marketing”). If you are unsure of the reader’s gender, simply state their full name and avoid the personal title (i.e. “Dear Jamie Smith”). If you are unsure of the reader’s gender, name, and title, simply write, “To Whom It May Concern.” Leave one line blank after the salutation.
3) Write readable proposals?
All these four factors have wide influence on writing style, but they do not act alone. Other points are important. Some examples, based very much on what people say they want in what they read, are now dealt with in the following bullets. Make your writing:
4) Write feasibility report?
A feasibility report is a testimony that attempts to create some sort of action. Feasibility reports are created to persuade/help the decision makers to choose between available options. Remember that your option is not the only one; the decision makers will probably have many to choose from. A feasibility report also determines whether or not the investigated task can be done with the amount of resources available OR how many resources will be necessary in order to complete the task. Feasibility may be useful in a lot of different situations such as event planning, finances, or even remodeling your home.
Important Features of a Basic Feasibility Report
Below are the seven elements of a feasibility report:
Write readable instructions?
Readability is the ease in which text can be read and understood. Various factors to measure readability have been used, such as “speed of perception,” “perceptibility at a distance,” “perceptibility in peripheral vision,” “visibility,” “the reflex blink technique,” “rate of work” (e.g., speed of reading), “eye movements,” and “fatigue in reading.”
Readability is distinguished from legibility which is a measure of how easily individual letters or characters can be distinguished from each other. Readability can determine the ease in which computer program code can be read by humans, such as through embedded documentation
Write the step of adding and maintaining new user in Unix/Linux system?
There are three types of accounts on a Unix system:
3. User accounts: User accounts provide interactive access to the system for users and groups of users. General users are typically assigned to these accounts and usually have limited access to critical system files and directories.
UNIX supports a concept of Group Account which logically groups a number of accounts. Every account would be a part of any group account. UNIX group’s plays important role in handling file permissions and process management.
Managing Users and Groups:
There are three main user administration files:
How many types of commands are there in Unix/Linux?
There are two kinds of commands used in Linux: Built-in Shell Commands and Linux Commands.
The Linux / UNIX operating systems come with many commands that the user can enter into the computer from the keyboard and use to interact with the computer. There are two kinds of commands that come with a Linux / UNIX operating system: Shell Commands and Linux/Unix Commands. Here is a comparison of the two:
What is the function and responsibilities of system administrator?
The duties of a system administrator are wide-ranging, and vary widely from one organization to another. Sysadmins are usually charged with installing, supporting, and maintaining servers or other computer systems, and planning for and responding to service outages and other problems. Other duties may include scripting or light programming, project management for systems-related projects.
1. User administration (setup and maintaining account)
2. Maintaining system
3. Verify that peripherals are working properly
4. Quickly arrange repair for hardware in occasion of hardware failure
5. Monitor system performance
6. Create file systems
7. Install software
8. Create a backup and recovery policy
9. Monitor network communication
10. Update system as soon as new version of OS and application software comes out
11. Implement the policies for the use of the computer system and network
12. Setup security policies for users. A sysadmin must have a strong grasp of computer security (e.g. firewalls and intrusion detection systems).
Preparing an Oral Report
Follow these steps to put together and deliver a first-rate presentation.
Step 1. Research the Facts
Gather information about the subject of your oral report. List the facts and interesting
information from your reading, taking notes accurately. Remember that relevant details and
vivid descriptions will make your oral report more interesting, as will visual aids such as maps,
charts, and pictures.
Step 2. Organize Your Information
Organize your oral report in three parts.
How will you introduce your report? What will be your first line? Write a short introduction
that briefly explains what your report will cover.
Organize the main points of your report. They should follow a logical order. Be sure that:
all your information is accurate;
you have included information from your research to support your main points;
you use details and descriptive sentences to make your report interesting.
Write a short conclusion. You can use the conclusion to:
wrap up and restate your main points;
draw upon your main points to formulate a personal opinion concerning the topic of your
Step 3. Practice Giving the Oral Report
Practice presenting your oral report with a friend or family member. If no one is available, try
practicing in front of a mirror. Keep the following points in mind when you give your report.
• Hold your body upright and face your audience.
• Speak clearly and deliberately—you want everyone to hear what you have learned.
• Refer to your notes only when necessary.
Step 4. Make A Final Copy of Your Report Notes
Use your notes to make a final outline of your report and put it on one index card or half-sheet
of paper. Try to use this card alone when giving your report. Refer to the rest of your notes only
if absolutely necessary.
It’s important to really know your subject and be well organized. If you know your material well, you will be confident and able to answer questions. If your report is well organized, the audience will find it informative and easy to follow.
Think about your audience. If you were listening to a report on your subject, what would you want to know? Too much information can seem overwhelming, and too little can be confusing. Organize your outline around your key points, and focus on getting them across.
Remember—enthusiasm is contagious! If you’re interested in your subject, the audience will be interested, too.
Practicing your report is a key to success. At first, some people find it helpful to go through the report alone. You might practice in front of a mirror or in front of your stuffed animals. Then, try out your report in front of a practice audience-friends or family. Ask your practice audience:
If you are using visual aids, such as posters or overhead transparencies, practice using them while you rehearse. Also, you might want to time yourself to see how long it actually takes. The time will probably go by faster than you expect.
Almost everyone is nervous when speaking before a group. Many people say public speaking is their Number 1 fear. Being well prepared is the best way to prevent nerves from getting the better of you. Also, try breathing deeply before you begin your report, and remember to breathe during the report. Being nervous isn’t all bad-it can help to keep you on your toes!
Have you prepared and practiced your report? Then go get ’em! Remember: you know your stuff, and your report is interesting and important.
1. Speaking from memory
2. Speaking from notes
3. Speaking from text
4. Using a combination of methods
Using PowerPoint in Oral Presentations
Visual aids are an important element of a good oral presentation. Using visuals can add interest to your presentation and help you communicate your ideas.
You can use PowerPoint software to produce overheads or to make a computer-based presentation. If you use it well, PowerPoint allows you to present colourful, interesting visuals and manage and combine a range of multimedia information.
Visual aids can:
1.1 Plan Your Presentation
Before you even think about making visuals for your presentation, you must know what you are going to say (see The Learning Centre’s Oral Presentations in Tutorials & Seminars brochure for more information).
After you’ve written your talk, then start planning your slideshow.
Once you know what you’re going to say, you can plan visuals to support your presentation. Planning helps you gather and organise your ideas before you start designing slides on computer. Planning will not only save time, but ensure that your visuals are effective.
Draw up a ‘storyboard’—a visual layout of the different ‘scenes’ in your presentation in rough sketch form. Storyboarding your slides before you create them helps you visualise how the content of your presentation will flow and how the slides relate to each other. Your storyboard should be a type of map, outlining the main points of your presentation.
Draw in pencil and have an eraser handy. You can rule up some frames on A3 paper or use a set of index cards or large post-it notes (cards/ post-its can be rearranged to try out different presentation sequences).
Evaluating and redrafting your storyboard enables you to make adjustments early while revisions are easy to do. Read your written script while looking at the storyboard and ask yourself:
Make sure you complete your storyboard before you move to the computer.
Keeping these elements in mind as you prepare and practice the presentation will reduce the amount of re-working you’ll have to do as it evolves, and will result in a streamlined, effective end product.
1. Rate: The optimal rate for a scientific talk is about 100 words per minute. Any faster and the audience can’t absorb the additional information. Use pauses and repeat critical information.
2. Opening: The opening should catch the interest and attention of the audience immediately, while avoiding trite filler phrases (Thank you for having me . . .) and technical jargon.
3. Transitions: The link between successive elements of the talk should be planned carefully. You should make the relation between successive elements clear to the audience.
4. Conclusion: Summarize the main concepts you’ve discussed, and how your work relates to issues you’ve raised. Signal that the summary is beginning (“In summary, …”), but don’t begin the summary too soon or else the audience will start to leave before you finish!
5. Length: Don’t run over! Ever! Shorten your talk by removing details, concepts, and information, not by eliminating words. If it becomes absolutely essential to supply details, supplement your presentation with a handout. Make about 10% more handouts than you think you’ll need. Always leave time for a few questions at the end of the talk.