Through the use of videotape interviewing, in which one –on one interviews are videotaped, managers are able to playback interviews to refresh memories or to look for new data. Storing the interview on videotape has the additional advantages of making it possible for others to see the interview and of altering the sequence of interviews. Disadvantages includes the possibility of interviewee’s resistance to being taped.
Research findings point out that the interview offers the greatest value as a
selection device in determining an applicant’s intelligence, level of motivation and
interpersonal skills. In spite of the importance of the interview as a selection
technique, it has several problems or limitations, which may be briefly discussed as
The effectiveness i.e. validity and reliability, of interview is lessened by personal
bias of the interview. He likes and dislikes about dress, hair style, fluency of
speech, gestures, phraseology etc may effect his judgments. Owing to personal
bias, applicants are accepted or rejected for reasons that may bear no relationship
to their potential performance, harming the validity of the interview.
Halo effect means that the interviewer tends to evaluate the total worth of an
applicant’s on the basis of a single quality. If an applicant looks impressive in one
particular area, the interviewer may concentrate on that area to the exclusion of
3. Horn effect:
It is the opposite tendency to the halo effect. Under this tendency, the interviewer
turns one negative characteristic into a conclusion that the candidate is weak on all
Contrast effect is a tendency among the interviewers to evaluate a current
candidate’s interview performance in relation to those who immediately preceded
him. If a first candidate received a very positive evaluation and the second is
average, then the interviewers tend to evaluate candidate’s performance as
contrasted to that of the first. Qualified candidate must be underrated just because
the previous candidate is much impressive.
5.Lack of integration of available information:
Information from interviews in not integrated in a systematic manner. If
interviewers share information that may go in haphazard manner, they do not
identify job-related information. This casual approach may save time and
confrontation in short run. In long run everyone in organization will pay for
the poor selection decision.
Leniency is adopted by the interviewers when they lack confidence and interest in
rating or they don’t have proper knowledge of interview. Toughness is the
opposite feature of leniency. Toughness consistently gives low scores and may
arise due to exaggerated expectations, lack of contact with people and rigid
Sometimes the interviewer projects himself as a standard. In such a case, he
expects his own type and size of knowledge, skills, and values in a candidate
whosoever appears in the interview. Therefore he is likely to select candidates
who resemble him in terms of appearance, manners, background etc.
Some other problems i.e. problem of signs or signals by the interviewer or some
interviewers may place more weight on other attributes or they may combine
attributes differently while making their overall decisions.
CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE INTERVIEW
The interview is a worthwhile technique so the following guidelines may be
suggested for improving the effectiveness i.e. reliability and validity of
interviews in spite of the fact that the needs of different organizations will
vary according to their requirements:
1.Plan the interview:
Never start the interview unprepared. The interview should be conducted along
specific set of guidelines. The interviewer begins by studying all the materials
already available on the candidate. Planning every session in advance, the
interviewer should know which topics are critical for each individual applicant
and he covers the ground.
2.Shaping interviewer behavior:
Research indicates that when interviewers’ evaluation of candidates are in
the form of specific predictions of job behavior. Employers are therefore likely
to achieve nonbiased selection decisions if they concentrate on shaping
interviewer behavior. One way to shape interviewer behavior is to establish a
specific system for conducting the employment interviewer. One way to
shape interviewer behavior is to establish a specific system for conducting
the employment interview.
3.Relaxed physical setting:
The interviewer should follow a fixed set procedure. Reliability is increased
when the interview is designed along a constant pattern.
4.Structure the interview:
The interviewer should follow a set of questions which should be present to
every applicant. Structure and consistency have proved to be of greater value
for selection purposes than non-structure and flexibility.
Interviewers should be given proper training. Structured interviews are more
likely to be achieved when interviewers been trained to follow similar patterns
in there questioning and to evaluate responses using a common standard. This
training would include awareness of the limitations or common problems
identified interview technique.
Whether the format is structured or unstructured, the interviewer should listen
closely to everything the applicant has to say. Snap judgments and categorization
should be avoided. Goal is to understand applicant’s outlook and encourage asking
questions then he feels satisfied that his needs is being considered.
7.Focus on both technical and intangible questions :
Throughout the discussion, the interviewer should focus on both the technical
qualifications necessary for the job and intangible qualifications such as
motivation, energy, initiative, and enthusiasm.
The interviewer should take notes on the candidate’s answers during the
interview but he should do so discreetly so as not to hinder the discussions.
This will lead to increased accuracy in evaluation.
9.Control over direction and time:
The interviewer should maintain control over direction and time taken for the
10.To do before the session ends:
Before the interview session ends, the interviewer should make certain that the
applicant understand the exact nature of the job. It is important for both the firm
and the candidate that any misconceptions be dispelled, if the interviewers
persuades the candidate to join the firm by emphasizing its attractiveness, such
persuasion should not encourage unreasonable expectations in the mind of the
11.Avoid very short interviews:
Very short interview is more likely for the interviewer to arrive at a premature
decision. Since there is a tendency to reach a decision early in the interview, the
longer the time allocated for the interview, the less pressure the interviewer will feel
to make such premature decisions.
12.Avoid certain things :
The interviewer should not plunge too quickly into demanding questions. He should
not ask leading questions. He should not jump to conclusions on inadequate
evidence. He should not pay too much attention to isolate strength and weaknesses.
INTERVIEWER’S PREPARATION FOR THE INTERVIEW
Through effective preparation, the interviewer can set the stage for whatever
kind of interviewing situation. It involves these elements.
What is the purpose of the interview? What are the expected outcomes what
style is more appropriate, and what atmosphere is best?
Is the physical set up consistent with the purpose? Is privacy adequate? What
distraction should be eliminated?
Does the interviewer have an awareness of his/her own strength and
weaknesses, prejudices biases and other possible barriers to effective
4.Understanding the other :
What is known or should be known about the interviewee? What his/her
values, aspirations, motives and background.
5.Knowledge about the job:
He should know the company’s organizational structure, requirements and work
environment of the job about which he is interviewing the applicant. He should
prepare a job analysis for the position so he knows what to look for in an applicant.
6.Nature of information needed:
He should decide what information he needs from each applicant and areas he must
cover in the interview, so that he can determine qualifications a successful
candidate should have regarding applicant values, aspiration, incentives and
•Avoid the impulse to cut the applicant off or the subject abruptly.
•Ask one question at a time.
•Make your question what you need.
• Appear interested in the candidate and give him or her full attention.
•Avoid expressing approval or disapproval of the candidate.
•Use language appropriate to the candidate. Empathies in your candidate.
•Ask no personal questions until after rapport has been established.
•Talk as little as possible. Let the applicant do most of the talking.
•Control the direction of the interview.
•Get a complete work history
•Takes notes of important point.
•Here and see the vocal and physical mannerisms of the applicant as well as listen carefully to all statements.
•Give the candidate an opportunity to ask questions. Answer honestly courteously.
•Sell the job if this is deemed desirable.
•Give the applicant a good impression of the organization before leaving.
•Allow the candidate ample opportunity to do himself or herself full justice.
DO NOT/PITFALLS TO BE AVOIDED BY THE INTERVIEWER
Pitfalls to avoid relate mainly to the following biases, prejudices and weaknesses
within the interviewer:
1.Halo effect-tendency of the interviewer to form an overall opinion about applicant on the basis of a single aspect of his or her makeup.
2.Stereotype error trap-tendency to categorize the applicant on basis of a few surface clauses.
3.Ideal image error-interviewer’s mental picture of the ideal person may necessary
conclude with the person who can actually be most effective on the job.
4.Personal—of the interviewer poor handshake, biting of fingernails, gum chewing, loud clothes, and poor eye control.
5.Pseudoscience and myth- judging the applicant’s character, mental ability attitudes by means of handwriting, outward features, date of birth, number of letters in the name, line or marks on the palm of the hand, shape and bulges of the skull.
6.Stereotyped mechanical interviewing – same questions in same order,adoption to the individual, no stimulating exchange of ideas, no interplay of attitudes. In turn, the interviewer receives stereotyped answers that don’t appraisal qualifications.
7.Illusion that previous experience. In itself guarantees ability to do the job well. Being swayed because the applicant needs a job – even the necessary qualifications are lacking.
8.Talking too much by interviewer not listening. Poor preparing for interview.
9.Asking inappropriate questions.
10.Being discourteous and rude towards the applicant.
11.Jumping to conclusion.
12.Leaving unexplored gaps.
13.Asking another question when the applicant merely hesitates a moment.
14.Allowing applicant to guide the interview. Depending on memory to conduct
interview ant to evaluate the applicant’s qualifications.
15.Appearing to be critical and cold towards the applicant.
16.Not observing not verbal clues (gestures, voice changes, hesitation)
(a)Leading questions that invite a given response and the wording of which suggest the answers wanted.
(b) Loaded question- use of language that reveals one’s own biases and prejudices; in turn, the applicant will slant answer accordingly.
(c) Dead- and question that elicit only “yes” or “no” answer.
GUIDELINES FOR INTERVIEWEE
From the time the interviewer first sees you until you leave, he or she will be observing you carefully and listening to everything you say and to make the best information, you need to.
1.Prepare for the interview:
Pre-interview planning involve the following
-Study the company:
Nothing can hurt the candidate more can knowing the little about the organization. No knowledge probably indicates no sincerity and seriousness.
The next thing is to assist your own abilities. In his connection job requirements and personal qualification need to be matched.
2.Make an appropriate appearance:
The job applicant can’t be prepared for everything but must be adequately groomed so as not to call negative attention to something that may or may not be job related.
In terms of appearance one should,
(a). Be as clean and well groomed as possible.
(b). Where appropriate footwear.
(c). Select appropriate clothes for the interview.
3.Plan your time:
One of the worst things you can do is to be late for an interview. Planning time properly allows you to unwind mentally review the things you plan to accomplish.
4.Show interest :
You can do so by the way you sit a look alert,by eye contact,by questions you ask. 5.Be courteous: Don’t chew gum and don’t smoke unless the interviewer invites you to do so.
6.Be sincere and honest at all times:
If you exaggerate or fabricate details- and if you are caught, interviewer will be less likely to consider you as a favorable candidate for the job.
Don’t try to put on airs. By being yourself, you‘ll be on familiar ground soon more comfortable and be more at ease.
8.Be a good listener:
By doing so, you will be ready to reply a question the interviewer asks, seem interested and also received, and valuable clues from the interviewer’s statements.
9.When desirable explain how could you help the company in this job and why you like doing this kind of work. If useful, pull out of your briefcase some examples of your past work.
10.Be prepared to ask sincere questions about the company because doing so shows interest.
11.Never make a slighting reference about a former professor or employer. If you can’t say anything good about a person don’t say anything bad.
12.Throughout the interview, smile at appropriate times but don’t maintain an artificial, plastered smile at any time.
13.Be alert for sign for the interviewer that the interview is about to end. And when you depart, be sure to thank the interviewer for seeing you.
14. Tactfully ask some kind of commitment as to when the interviewer will let you know his/her decisions.
QUESTIONING SKILL FOR INTERVIEW
Employers hire people, not qualifications and the purpose of the interviewers is to
evaluate candidate from the company’s point of view. As the candidate has been
invited based on proper qualifications the interviewer will evaluate the person and
how good he or she fits with the evaluate the person and how good he or she fits
with the company.
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
Interview questions can be closed, open-ended, probing or a combination of both
Such questions do not require detailed answer and only factual data are needed in a
Such questions illustrate the strength to the candidate who should tell the
interviewer about his proven quality.
Such questions should be answered with more details about the topic being
discussed and gives an in-depth idea about the candidate.
CLASSIFICATION OF INTERVIEW QUESTIONS:
There are innumerable numbers of questions that can be put by the
interviewer. But all these questions can be summaries into different
categories which are as follows.
Question related to education.
Such questions a usually asked to fresher which are evaluative as to why the
candidate preferred a particular course to other courses. Here is some
education questions often asked.
(a). Why did you take a particular course?
(b). Given the options what other courses would you prefer and why?
(c). Which part of marketing/finance/human resources you liked the most?
(d). What motivated you to do a post graduation?
(e). Tell me about your most liked and disliked subjects.
Most questions about education should be answered with the relevant facts, but at
the same time the candidate should illustrate his strengths that will be in context
with the job. Questions asked about best and worst courses, jobs or experience are
just to test the strengths and weaknesses of the candidate.
Questions relate to experience.
Such questions are usually aimed at the experience holders and are asked to study
the qualities of the candidate regarding his supervisory skills. These questions can
also elicit answers that can gauge the understanding of the job of the candidate.
The candidate should adapt his actual work experience to the job for which of
summer projects or even about a volunteer job that can highlight his managerial,
financial or even marketing skills that can be relevant to the job experience is not
enough, the candidate should be hold enough to ask as to what challenged the job
others and use his experience to elaborate how he is capable enough to candle the
Listed below are some of the experience questions.
(a). Tell me about your previous job.
(b). What was your most disappointing work experience?
(c). How do you know that you have done a good job?
(d). Describe a situation where you handled a problem with it.
(e). Tell me about your most challenging and lest challenging job.
(f). What was the most important thing you learned on your last job?
(g). What type of people to you like to work with?
(h). Highlight the major work achievements of your previous company.