Archive | November 2012

MICROPROCESSOR

BASIC OPERATIONS OF A MICROCOMPUTER

A microcomputer is a computer with microprocessor as it CPU, Memory that is Ram and Rom and I/O ports these parts are connected through system of wires of buses (Address Bus, Control Bus, Data Bus).

1) The instructions for a computer are store in successive memory location as binary location.

2) The CPU fetches in instruction from memory, decodes the instruction to determine what action must be taken and carries out detaction (execute it).

3) For fetching, first it CPU places address of the instruction on the address bus, control signals.

EXAMPLE

(Read in this case) on the control bus and finally read instruction through data bus.

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This entry was posted on November 29, 2012. 2 Comments

MICROPROCESSOR

MICROPROCESSOR

It is the controling unit computer laid out on a tiny slicon chip and containing the logical elements for handling data, performing calculations and executing store instructions.

Three main task perform by the microprocessor are:

1) Data transfer between it self and an address location or I/O location.

2) Simple airthmetic and logical operations.

3) Program flow via simple decision.

BUSES OF MICROPROCESSOR

BUSES

Bus is a set of physical connection or electrical path ways shared by multiple hardware for data transfer or communication.

The purpose of using bus is to reduced the number of path ways neede for communication.

1) ADDRESS BUS

It is a unidirectional bus that carries address generated by the microprocessor bus to memory and I/O elements of the computer. The width or size (number of bits) of the address bus determines the location it can execes if n is the number of bits then the number of addressable location (n=2n).

2) DATA BUS

It is a bidirectional bus that transfer actual data or instruction between microprocessor and memory or I/O location during Read/Write operation.

3) CONTROL BUS

It is a bidirectional bus that carries the timeing and control signals to coordinate the activities of the entiers system.

EXAMPLE

Memory Read/Write Signals, I/O Read/Write Signals,Clock Signals.

ROLES OF ADDRESS & CONTROL SIGNALS

ADDRESS SIGNALS

A signals talls were the data should go or which location is to be execess. The width or size (number of bits) of the address bus determines the location it can execes if n is the number of bits then the number of addressable location (L=2n).

CONTROL SIGNALS

It identifies the type of transactions.for example: As a Read/Write transaction for memory or I/O.

It also synchronize the fast processor to the slow external devices it is reading from or writing to.

EXAMPLE

Memory Write (MEMW), Memory Read (MEMR), I/O Read (IOR), I/O Write (IOW).

ABBREVATIONS

  • ADF:        Automatic Document Feeder.
  • ABM:       Asynchronous Balanced Mode.
  • AC:          Alternating Current.
  • ACL:        Access Control List.
  • ADC:       Analog-To-Digital Converter.         
  • ADO:       ActiveX Data Objects.
  • ADSL:     Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line.
  • AGP:       Accelerated Graphics Port.
  • AIX:         Advanced Interactive Executive.
  • Ajax:       Asynchronous JavaScript and XML.
  • ALU:       Airthmetic and Logical Unit.
  • AMD:      Advanced Micro Devices.
  • ANSI:      American National Standards Institute.
  • API:        Application Programming Interface.
  • ARP:      Address Resolution Protocol.
  • ASCII:    American Standard Code for Information Interchange.  
  • ATA:      Advance Technology Attachment.
  • ATM:     Asynchronous Transfer Mode.
  • BIOS:    Basic Input Output System.
  • BNC:     Bayonet Neill-Concealment.
  • bps:      bits per second
  • CD:       Compact Disk.
  • CGA:    Color Graphics Array.
  • CLI:      Command Line Interface.
  • CLR:    Common Language  Runtime.
  • CMOS: Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor.
  • CPU:    Central Procsessing Unit.
  • CRT:    Cathode Ray Tube.
  • CSI:      Common System Interface.
  • DCL:    Data Control Language.
  • DDL:    Data Definition Language.
  • DIMM:  Dual Inline Memory Module.
  • DLL:    Dynamic Link Library.
  • DMA:   Direct Memory Access.
  • DND:   Drag-And-Drop.
  • DML:   Data Manipulation Language.
  • DOS:   Disk Operating System.
  • DP:      Dot Pitch.
  • DPMI:  DOS Protected Mode Interface.
  • DRAM:Dynamic Random Access Memory.
  • DSL:   Digital Subscriber  Line.
  • DSSSL: Document Style Semantics And Specification Language.
  • EDA:     Electronic Design Automation.   
  • EDO:     Exetended Data Out.
  • EEPROM:   Electronically- Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.
  • EISA:        Exetended Industry Standard Architecture.
  • EPROM:  Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.
  • EXE:        Executable.
  • FAT:        File Allocation Table.
  • FDD:        Floppy Disk Drive.
  • FDDI:      Fiber Distributed Data Interface.
  • FIFO:      First In First Out.
  • FTTP:     Fiber To The Premises.
  • FTP:         File Transfer Protocol.
  • GB/gb:     Giga Byte / Gigabit.
  • GIF:         Graphics Interchange Format.
  • GUI:         Graphical User Iterface.
  • HAL:        Hardware Abstraction Layer.
  • HDD:        Hard Disk Drive.
  • HP:           Hewlett-Packard.
  • HPFS:      High Performance File System.
  • HTML:    Hypertext Markup Language.
  • HTTP:     Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
  • IBM:        International Business Machine.
  • IC:            Integrated Circuit.
  • ICMP:      Internet Control Message Protocol.
  • IDE:          Integrated Drive Electronic.
  • IE:             Internet Explorer.
  • IEEE:        Institute of Electrical and electronics Engineers.
  • IM:            Instant Messaging.
  • IMAP:       Internet Message Accessed Protocol.
  • IP:              Internet Protocol.
  • IP:              Intellectual Property.
  • IPX:           Internet work Packet Exchange.
  • IRP:           I/O Request Packet.
  • ISA:           Industry Standard Architecture.
  • ISDN:        Integrated Services Digital Network.
  • ISP:           Internet Service Provider.
  • JPEG:        Joint Photographic Experts Group.
  • JSP:           Jackson structured Programming.
  • KB/kb:      Kilo Byte / Kilobit.
  • LAN:         Local Area Network.
  • LCD:         Liquid Crystal Display.
  • LED:          Light – Emitting Diode.
  • LIFO:         Last In First Out.
  • LUN:          Logical Unit Number.
  • MAC:         Mandatory Access Control.
  • MB/Mb:     Mega Byte / Megabit.
  • MCSA:       Microsoft Certified System Administrator.
  • MHz:          Mega Hertz.
  • MMIO:      Memory-Mapped I/O.
  • MMU:        Memory Management Unit.
  • MoBo:        Motherboard.
  • MS-DOS:   Microsoft DOS
  • MSDN:       Microsoft Developer Network.
  • MVC:         Model-View-Controller.
  • NEP:           Network Equipment Provider.
  • NFS:           Network File System.
  • NTFS:        NT File system.
  • NSPR:        Netscape Portable Runtime
  • NMI:          Non-Mask able Interrupt.
  • NNTP:       Network News Transfer Protocol.
  • OMG:        Object Management Group.
  • OSI:           Open Systems Interconnection.
  • P2P:           Peer-To-Peer.
  • PAN:          Personal Area Network.
  • PAP:          Password Authentication.
  • PCB:          Printed Circuit Board.
  • PCI:           Peripheral Component Interconnect.
  • PCIe:         PCI Express.
  • PDP:          Programmed Data Processor.
  • PIC:           Peripheral Interface Controller.
  • POST:       Power-On Self Test.
  • PS/2:         Personal System/2.
  • PNG:        Portable Network Graphics.
  • BMP:       Basic Multilingual Plane.
  • PnP:         Plug-And-Play.
  • RARP:     Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.
  • RISC:       Reduced Information Protocol.
  • RLL:        Run – Length Encoding.
  • RPM:       RPM Package Manager.
  • SATA:      Serial ATA.
  • SCSI:        Small Computer System Interface.
  • DDR:        Double Data Rate.
  • SD:           Secure Digital.
  • SDK:        Software Development Kit.
  • SDRAM: Synchronous Dynamic Random access Memory.
  • SFTP:     Simple File Transfer Protocol.
  • SIMM:   Single Inline Memory Module.
  • DIMM:  Dual Line Memory Module.
  • SSD:       Software Specification Document.
  • TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol.
  • TTL:      Transistor- Transistor Logic.
  • XML:     Extensible Markup Language.
  • UDP:      User Datagram Protocol.
  • URL:      Uniform Resource Locator.
  • URI:       Uniform Resource Identifier.
  • VESA:    Video Electronics Standards Association.
  • USB:       Universal Serial Bus.
  • VM:        Virtual Memory.
  • VGA:      Video Graphics Array.
  • Wi-Fi:      Wireless Fidelity.
  • WLAN:    Wireless LAN.
  • WPAN:     Wireless PAN.
  • XML:        Extensible Hypertext Markup Language.
  • CCNA:      Cisco Certified Network Administrator.
  • B2B:          Business-To-Business.
  • B2C:          Business-To-Consumer.
  • C2C:          Computer-To-Computer.
  • C2B:          Consumer-To-Business.
  • GUI:          Graphical User Interface.
  • NLM:        Network Loadable Module.
  • ATI:          Array/Advance Technology inc/ Interface.
  • BCD:        Binary Coded Decimal.
  • EDI:          Electronic Data Interchange.
  • WWW:     World wide Web.
  • E-mail:      Electronic mail
  • BMP:         Basic Multilingual Plane.
  • RISC:         Reduced Instruction Set Computer.
  • CISC:         Complex Instruction Set Computer.
  • PPI:            Pixels Per Inch.
  • EBCDIC:   Exetended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. 
  • IRQ:           Interrupt Request.
  • MCA:         Micro Channel architecture.
  • ATX:          Advance Technology Extended.

HTML

WEB PAGE

WEB BROWSER

  • Web page is what you see the web browser is what displays the web page.

A web browser is the software application that accesses the web page.

  • A web page is what you see the browser to view like Google, YouTube, or answers.com.

A web browser is a program on your computer like Explorer, Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox.

  • Web page contains information interact with user or client use to interact over the network.

Web browser is the application or tool use to run web pages.

 

DEVELOPMENT OF HTML:

After Vinegar Bush first proposed the basics of hypertext in 1945, it laid the foundation for Tim Berners-Lee and others to invent the World Wide Web, HTML (hypertext markup language), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) and URLs (Universal Resource Locators) in 1990.

DEFINATION OF HTML:

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, it is the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web. HTML is used to define the structure and layout of a Web page, how a page looks and any special functions. HTML does this by using what are called tags that have attributes. For example <p> means a paragraph break. As the viewer of a web page you don’t see the HTML, it is hidden from your view, however, you do the results.

TIME BERNERS-LEE & HTML:

  • Tim Berners-Lee was the primary author of html, assisted by his colleagues at CERN, an international scientific organization based in Geneva, Switzerland. Tim Berners-Lee is currently the Director of the World Wide Web Consortium, the group that sets technical standards for the Web.
  • View a screen shot of Tim Berners-Lee’s Browser Editor as developed in 1991-92 this was a true browser editor for the first version of HTML and ran on a Next workstation. Implemented in Objective-C, it made it easy to create, view and edit web documents. Hypertext Markup Language (First Version of HTML) was formally published on June 1993.

DEVELOPMENT OF WWW:


In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee, an independent contractor at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN),Switzerland, built ENQUIRE, as a personal database of people and software models, but also as a way to play with hypertext; each new page of information in ENQUIRE had to be linked to an existing page.

In 1984 Berners-Lee returned to CERN, and considered its problems of information presentation: physicists from around the world needed to share data, and with no common machines and no common presentation software. He wrote a proposal in March 1989 for “a large hypertext database with typed links”, but it generated little interest. His boss, Mike Send all, encouraged Berners-Lee to begin implementing his system on a newly acquired NeXT workstation. He considered several names, including Information Mesh,The Information Mine(turned down as it abbreviates to TIM, the WWW’s creator’s name) or Mine of Information (turned down because it abbreviates to MOI which is “Me” in French), but settled on World Wide Web.

He found an enthusiastic collaborator in Robert Caelian, who rewrote the proposal (published on November 12, 1990) and sought resources within CERN. Berners-Lee and Caelian pitched their ideas to the European Conference on Hypertext Technology in September 1990, but found no vendors who could appreciate their vision of marrying hypertext with the Internet.

By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the first Web browser (named WorldWideWeb, which was also a Web editor), the first HTTP server software (later known as CERN httpd), the first web server and the first Web pages that described the project itself. The browser could access Usenet newsgroups and FTP files as well. However, it could run only on the NeXT; Nicola Pillow therefore created a simple text browser that could run on almost any computer called the Line Mode Browser. To encourage use within CERN, Bernd Pollermann put the CERN telephone directory on the web — previously users had to log onto the mainframe in order to look up phone numbers.

According to Tim Berners-Lee, the Web was mainly invented in the Building 31 at CERN but also at Home, in the two houses he lived in during that time (one in France, one in Switzerland).

On August 6, 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext news group. This date also marked the debut of the Web as a publicly available service on the Internet.

HTML

INTERNET VS WWW:

The World Wide Web (WWW) is one set of software services running on the Internet. The Internet itself is a global, interconnected network of computing devices. This network supports a wide variety of interactions and communications between its devices. The World Wide Web is a subset of these interactions and supports websites and URIs.

COMPARISON CHART:

Improve this chart

Internet

World Wide Web

Estimated year of Origin:

1969, though opening of the network to commercial interests began only in 1988

1983

Name of the first version:

ARPANET

NSFnet

Comprises of:

Network of Computers, copper wires, fiber-optic cables & wireless networks

Files, folders & documents stored in various computers

Governed by:

Internet Protocol

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

Dependency:

This is the base; Independent of the World Wide Web

It depends on Internet to work

Nature:

Hardware

Software

DESCRIBE WEB BROWSER:

Surfing the web is made possible by Web browsers. Browsers are basically software programs that allow you to search for and view various kinds of information on the Web, such as web sites, video, audio, etc.

  • THE MOST POPULAR WEB BROWSERS:

Here are just a few of Web browsers available to you for a free download:

  • Microsoft’s Internet Explorer: Most Internet users are using Internet Explorer because it’s easy to use and most Web sites are written with Internet Explorer in mind, meaning that they are compatible.
  • Opera: Opera is another popular browser that’s easy to use; however, it can have some compatibility issues with various websites.
  • Mozilla’s Firefox: Firefox is rapidly gaining ground right behind Internet Explorer because of its tabbed browsing, superior security features, and fast load.
  • Mac Safari: Specifically for Mac users, Safari is an excellent choice for a Web browser, with fast load and good compatibility with most websites out there.

BREAKDOWN OF A WEB BROWSER:

We all know what a Web browser looks like, but it’s good to have a complete breakdown of the various parts of most Web browsers just for reference’s sake. The parts of a browser include:

  • Status bar: This is the box at the bottom of your browser window. The status bar displays all sorts of information, depending on what you’re doing at the time, but mostly it’s for showing load speed and the URL of whatever address your mouse is hovering over.
  • Address bar: This is the box at the top of your browser window that displays the entire URL, or Web site address.
  • Title bar: The title bar is at the very top of your browser window; in both Firefox and Internet Explorer it is the blue bar there at the top. You’ll see the title of the Web page there; for example, you should see “What Is a Web Browser?” at the top of your browser window right now.
  • Toolbar Icons: The toolbar and its icons are at the top of your browser window right underneath the Title Bar. This is where you’ll see the Back button, the Home button, the Refresh button, etc.
  • Display Window: The Display Window is just a fancy term for your browser work space; it’s the frame through which you see this website right now.
  • Scroll Bars: If you’ve ever been to a website that you had to “scroll down” to read something, then you’ve used the scroll bars. They’re just navigational/directional aids.

USE A WEB BROWSER:

Many people can successfully navigate the World Wide Web without any problem at all and may even consider them experts of the Web. On the other hand, there are thousands of other people who don’t even know the first thing about operating a web browser. If you’d like to know how to operate a web browser (the tool you user to navigate the internet), such as Microsoft’s Internet Explorer or Mozilla’s Firefox without taking an expensive computer-learning class then here are the basics of using a web browser of your choice.

 

READING SKILLS

READING PROBLEMS

•There are so many problems a reader usually faces. The first and foremost problem is lack of vocabulary. If there is not sufficient amount of vocabulary a reader is nearly unable to comprehend the given passage. Reader may finds out the message using the reference to the context
•Another major problem a reader faces is lack of recognition of common phrases useful expressions and basic structures. It is the problem that may misleads a reader to unwanted message that writer of passage does not convey.
•Other problems of reading when we read a book, newspaper or magazine we do not vocalized our mouth. It increases the speeding power another reason where we take a lecturer we do not listen the proper pronunciation of words we do not use proper dictionary of concern language
•Another problem of reading is regression problem. It means when a reader came from work he felt every file when again and again read the sentence but physically and mentally he did not gave a proper time and his efficiency decreases
•Another problem is shortage of vocabulary and failure to understand the structure of paragraph. 
PRINCIPLES OF BASIC READING SKILLS

In order to enhance effective reading, some of the following steps or principles should kept in view

1.SKIMMING

  In order to read completely and comprehensively this technique is used and it is effective when only reference to a particular paragraph is required or an ordinary outline Is needed.

  The basic idea can be obtained by skimming a voluminous book or a long report and this is done by studying index of topics or chapters and sub topics. It implies that when data is regarding particular topic of a book or report is needed.

2.SCANNING

  In business most of the reading includes sorting out telephone numbers or looking a reference of any file. A reader knows the identity of reference and if he needs any written records he can retrieve that by looking at different files. He is well aware of files are kept in proper order, or alphabetical order or in a serial number. If none of above order does not exist a difficulty step of reading files is faced in which references are retrieved in haphazard way.

3.COMPREHENSION

  for effective reading it is wise to keep in view the principle that the matter you are studying it is needed to take help of very depth understanding or we can say you comprehend meanings of the matter with your wisdom.

4.CONCENTRATION

  Even if you are reading just for study you need to pay proper and full attention or you need to try to comprehend whatever you are reading. Following this principle you can really benefit the knowledge. It means by giving more attention and your effort to comprehend can make your reading useful and effective

5.CRITICAL SCRUTINY

  By critical scrutiny knowledge is gained and true facts come across. It deals reader’s questioning deriving their meanings challenging various statements obtaining information out of other resources and contrasting it with other scripts written on the same sort of topic. The more practice the more effective study

6.PURPOSE OF STUDY

  You should know why you are reading. It means to know the objective of reading

GENERAL CONVERSATION

  One Primary characteristic of conversation is that it is fully interactive. At least two people must participate in it and they exchange messages on a real time basis. Participants take turns in exchanging these messages, so conversation is fundamentally a sequential activity. Talk is designed to reflect back on prior turns and project ahead to future ones.

 Second Primary characteristics of conversation is that it is locally managed. The participants themselves during the course of their interaction determine which people get to speak in what order they speak and for how long. The things people are expected to talk about what they actually say an how they say it are also worked out among the participants as the conversation progresses. This contrasts with other such forms of talk as formal debate in which order and length of speaking turns decided upon before the event even begins.

INTERVIEW

MEANING
•Interview refers to a conversation with a purpose “ Selection of Employment interview”.
•It is conducted to evaluate the applicant’s suitability & acceptability.
•The interviewer seeks to satisfy himself with reference to the applicant  about broad issues,

              (I).  Will the applicant do the job?

              (II). How does the applicant compares with the other
                applicants who are being considered for the job?

•Interview is a face to face encounter with a purpose. It employs conversation.
•In an interview there is given and take between the interviewer and interviewee.
•Much of the interaction between these two is carried on by gestures, postures, facial expressions and other communicative behavior.
•The interview affords an opportunity to understand a clear picture of the personality of the candidate.
 
OBJECTIVES OF INTERVIEW/PURPOSE/ESSENTIALS
Various purposes of employment interview may be discussed as follows:
 
1.To determine suitability:

        Interview has been widely used to find out suitability of the candidate  because it offers an opportunity to the interviewer to learn and judge the applicant’s qualification, training, work history etc.

 2.To verify and collect information:

        Interview is used to verify the information obtained in application form and test results and also gathers that information which is not in application form of candidate.

3.To provide job description:
 
The purpose of the interview is to give detail description about the job i.e. full detail of terms and condition of employment, objectives and policies of the company. It also provide opportunity to the applicant to learn about the job and employer.
 
4.To reinforce employment decisions:
 
The interview is designed with a purpose to determine and reinforce the reliability(consistency) and validity (accuracy) of the employment decision based on assessments derived from the interview.
 
5.To discover psychological factors:
 
Is purpose is to discover various psychological factors that influence interviewer’s judgments.
To establish rapport or mutual understanding. The comprehensive conversation is designed to establish a positive relationship between the employer and the employee  and to motivate the prospective  employees to accept the offer of appointment with the enterprise and also to promote company’s goodwill.
 
SIGNIFICANCE/IMPORTANCE (MERITS) OF INTERVIEW
 

Interview is the oldest and most commonly used device in selecting personnel at all

Levels. Merits are as follows;

1.To fill in information gaps:
 
The interview offers a chance for the manager to fill in gaps in the information provided by application forms and tests.
 
2.To assess psychological or intangible factors:
 
Interview lead new types of information i.e. interviews are used to assess intangible factors such as motivation and enthusiasm that can’t be shown on application form.
 
3.Help in selecting a suitable candidate:
 
Interview provides an opportunity to the manager to judge suitability of candidate. It is the most satisfactory way of judging qualities of candidates i.e. way of talking, thinking, sensitivity, qualities of leadership and so on. Qualities possessed by him make him suitable for the job in the concern.
 
4.Two-way exchange of information :
 
Interview allows a two-way exchange of information- interviewers learn about the applicant , and applicant learn about the employer, the job environment and the company policies.
 
5.Flexibility:
 
Selection interviews are the most widely used selection technique. Most of the companies have more confidence in interviews than in any other source of selection information. Their popularity stems from their flexibility. They can be adapted to unskilled, skilled, managerial and professional employees.
 
PROCESS OF INTERVIEW/ ACTIVITIES IN AN INTERVIEWING SITUATION
 

The interview should be supplemented by other techniques of selection such as

psychological tests, trade tests etc. This process has sequential steps that illustrate

how the actual interview process occurs or should occur :

1. Preparation of interview:
 
Advance planning is necessary for successful interview, because that enables the interviewer to cover all important aspects and essential points in order to select candidate for the job. The upcoming guidelines or principles must be observed to make perfect arrangements  for a good interview.
 
2.Arranging a relaxed physical setting :
 
After planning and preparation, we should do proper arrangements which means place of interview should be private, neat and clean, well ventilated as well as comfortable. It should be free from any other disturbance or noise. Moreover proper seating arrangements should be made by comfortable furniture.
 
3.Conducting the interview :
 
The interview should start at the fixed time that candidates haven’t to wait unnecessarily. This phase is of critical importance in an interview.
 
4.Creation of rapport:
 
The heart of interview process is the rapport. Its is a relationship of mutual trust and comfort far from anxiety. No interview is without stress. There is anxiety at both sides. By this the candidate will talk freely. In view of mutual anxiety, every effort should be made to allay (calm) the normal fear of both parties. Rapport is aided by beginning the interview on time and starting with  non-threatening questions, greeting the candidate with a warm smile and reducing his nervousness.
 
5.Information Exchange:
 
The interview process is a conversation that exchanges information and  the interviewer ask questions so as to get complete information. Interviewee can also ask questions regarding the company, job responsibilities and career potential.
 
6.Closing the interview:
 
The interviewer must draw the session to a close. Non-verbal communication is useful in this regard. Verbal indication may be given thus; “Okay, thank you”. The interviewer may tell the candidate about the manner of intimating him about the  result of the interview.
 
7.Recording observations and impressions:
 
The interviewer should write down in brief his observations & impressions gathered during the interview and noted down on the Interview Assessment  Form.
 
8.Evaluation:
 
After the interview end, the interviewer evaluates the performance of the candidate on the basis of information, impressions and observation recorded. The interviewer also take into consideration the weight age given to the information collected through all the selection steps. The use of the checklist can improve reliability of the interview as a selection technique. This kind of checklist helps interviewer to obtain large information even from a short interview.
 
METHODS/TECHNIQUES/TYPES OF INTERVIEW
 

The common methods or techniques or types or formats of interview may be

Discussed as follows:

1.Structured or Patterned Interview:
 
Structured or directive or guided interviews rely on a predetermined set of questions. The questions are developed before the interview begins and ask from every important question from the applicant. It helps to guarantee  that all the applicants have been treated in the same way. Structured questions improve the reliability of the interview process. If the interview is too rigidly structured , the interviewer is not allowed the chances of follow up questions with regard to interesting responses given by the candidate. 
 
2.Unstructured or non-directive interview :
 
Unstructured or un-patterned or  non-directive interview allows the interviewer to develop questions as interview proceeds. The interviewer tries to simulate a friendly conversation. The interviewer’s questions are held to a minimum, and they are open-ended. Rather than asking about specific details of the candidate’s last job, the interviewer may say: “Tell me about your work in this field.” Questions are made up during the interview.
 
3.Mixed Interview:
 
Interviewers typically use a blend of structured or non-structured questions. The structures questions provide a base of information that allows comparisons between candidates. But the unstructured questions make the interview more conversational and permit greater insights into the unique differences between the applicants. In a mixed interview, the interviewers encourage the applicant to expand on his ideas but standard topics are duly covered. The mixed interview is a realistic approach that yields comparable answers as well as in depth insights.
 
4.Behavioral or Situation problem interview:
 
Behavioral interview focuses on a problem or a hypothetical situation  that applicant is expected to solve. In this interview, the candidate is given a specific problem to solve or a project to complete. Often these are hypothetical situation, and the applicant is asked what should be done. Both his answer and approach are evaluated. This interview technique has a very narrow scope. It primarily reveals the applicant’s ability to solve the types of problems presented- useful to understand applicant’s reasoning power and analytically abilities under modest stress.
 
5.Stress Interview:
 
Stress interviews attempt to learn how the applicant will respond to pressure and stressful situations. This technique is used when the job evolves much stress. The interview itself consist of a series of harsh questions which are asked in rapid fire succession and in unfriendly manner. This interview test the emotional balance ability if the candidate. Attempts are made to exert pressure on the candidate by exposing him to rapid firing of questions. 
 
6.Group interviews:
 
In a group interview, a number of candidates are interviewed at once. Generally they are allowed to discuss job related matters among themselves while one or more observers rate their performance. A topic for discussion is given to the group. The interviewers observe the interaction potentiality, argumentation power, reactions, quality of ideas and logic, interactive ability, etc. of the candidates and rate them on these bases. Such interview is based on assumption that behavior displayed in a group situation is related to potential success on the job.
 
7.Panel or broad interview:
 
Such interview is conducted by a panel of two or more representatives of the firm. One candidate meets with the panel or broad. One of the panelists may act as a chairperson, but each of the panelists takes part in the questioning and discussions. Questions are asked by then in turn or at random.  This format allows the interviewers to co ordinate their efforts and follow up on questions.
 
8.One-on one interview:
 
This is a format in which candidate will pass through a series of interviews, first with member of HR department, then with manager for job opening and finally with manager’s superior.
 
9.Videotape interviewing:
 
Through the use of videotape interviewing, in which one –on one interviews are videotaped, managers are able to playback interviews to refresh memories or to look for new data. Storing the interview on videotape has the additional advantages of making it possible for others to see the interview and of altering the sequence of interviews. Disadvantages includes the possibility of interviewee’s resistance to being taped.
 
LIMITATION OR DEMERITS OF   INTERVIEW/COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED (INTERVIEWER ERRORS)
 

Research findings point out that the interview offers the greatest value as a

selection  device in determining an applicant’s intelligence, level of motivation and

interpersonal skills. In spite of the importance of the interview as a selection

technique, it has several problems or limitations, which may be briefly discussed as

follows:

1.Personnel Bias:

The effectiveness i.e. validity and reliability, of interview is lessened by personal

bias of the interview. He likes and dislikes about dress, hair style, fluency of

speech, gestures, phraseology etc may effect his judgments. Owing to personal

bias, applicants are accepted or rejected for reasons that may bear no relationship

to their potential performance, harming  the validity of the interview.

2.Halo effect:

Halo effect means that the interviewer tends to evaluate the total worth of an

applicant’s on the basis of a single quality. If an applicant looks impressive in one

particular area, the interviewer may concentrate on that area to the exclusion of

other matters.

3.     Horn effect:

It is the opposite tendency to the halo effect. Under this tendency, the interviewer

turns one negative characteristic into a conclusion that the candidate is weak on all

 fronts.

4.Contrast effect:

Contrast effect is a tendency among the interviewers to evaluate a current

candidate’s interview performance in relation to those who immediately preceded

him. If a first candidate received a very positive evaluation and the second is

average, then the interviewers tend to evaluate candidate’s performance as

contrasted to that of the first. Qualified candidate must be underrated just because

the previous candidate is much impressive.

5.Lack of integration of available information:

Information from interviews in not integrated in a systematic manner. If

interviewers share information that may go in haphazard manner, they do not

identify job-related information. This casual approach may save time and

confrontation in short run. In long run everyone in organization will pay for

the poor selection decision. 

6.Leniency:

Leniency is adopted by the interviewers when they lack confidence and interest in

rating or they don’t have proper knowledge of interview. Toughness is the

opposite feature of leniency. Toughness consistently gives low scores and may

arise due to exaggerated expectations, lack of contact with people and rigid

personality. 

7.Projection:

Sometimes the interviewer projects himself as a standard. In such a case, he

expects his own type and size of knowledge, skills, and values in a candidate

whosoever appears in the interview. Therefore he is likely to select candidates

who resemble him in terms of appearance, manners, background etc.

8.Other problems:

Some other problems i.e. problem of signs or signals by the interviewer or some

interviewers may place more weight on other attributes or they may combine

attributes differently while making their overall decisions.

CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE INTERVIEW

The interview is a worthwhile technique so the following guidelines may be

suggested for improving the effectiveness i.e. reliability and validity of

interviews in spite of the fact that the needs of different organizations will

vary according to their requirements:

1.Plan the interview:

Never start the interview unprepared. The interview should be conducted along

specific set of guidelines. The interviewer begins by studying all the materials

already available on the candidate. Planning every session in advance, the

interviewer should know which topics are critical for each individual applicant

and he covers the ground.

2.Shaping interviewer behavior:

Research indicates that when interviewers’ evaluation of candidates are in

the form of specific predictions of job behavior. Employers are therefore likely

to achieve nonbiased selection decisions if they concentrate on shaping

interviewer behavior. One way to shape interviewer behavior is to establish a

specific system for conducting the employment interviewer. One way to

shape interviewer behavior is to establish a specific system for conducting

the employment interview.

3.Relaxed physical setting:

The interviewer should follow a fixed set procedure. Reliability is increased

when the interview is designed along a constant pattern.

4.Structure the interview:

The interviewer should follow a set of questions which should be present to

every applicant. Structure and consistency have proved to be of greater value

for selection purposes than non-structure and flexibility. 

5.Train interviewers:

Interviewers should be given proper training. Structured interviews are more

likely to be achieved when interviewers been trained to follow similar patterns

in there questioning and to evaluate responses using a common standard. This

training would include awareness of the limitations or common problems

identified interview technique.

6.Listen closely:                                                                                                                                                       

Whether the format is structured or unstructured, the interviewer should listen

closely to everything the applicant has to say. Snap judgments and categorization

should be avoided. Goal is to understand applicant’s outlook and encourage asking

questions then he feels satisfied that his needs is being considered.

7.Focus on both technical and intangible questions :

Throughout the discussion, the interviewer should focus on both the technical

qualifications necessary for the job and intangible qualifications such as

motivation, energy, initiative, and enthusiasm.

8.Make notes:

The interviewer should take notes on the candidate’s answers during the

interview but he should do so discreetly so as not to hinder the discussions.

This will lead to increased accuracy in evaluation.

 

9.Control over direction and time:

The interviewer should maintain control over direction and time taken for the

 interview. 

10.To do before the session ends:

Before the interview session ends, the interviewer should make certain that the

applicant understand the exact nature of the job. It is important for both the firm

and the candidate that any misconceptions be dispelled, if the interviewers

persuades the candidate to join the firm by emphasizing its attractiveness, such

persuasion should not encourage unreasonable expectations in the mind of the

candidate. 

11.Avoid very short interviews:

Very short interview is more likely for the interviewer to arrive at a premature

decision. Since there is a tendency to reach a decision early in the interview, the

longer the time allocated for the interview, the less pressure the interviewer will feel

to make such premature decisions.

12.Avoid certain things :

The interviewer should not plunge too quickly into demanding questions. He should

not ask leading questions. He should not jump to conclusions on inadequate

evidence. He should not pay too much attention to isolate strength and weaknesses.

INTERVIEWER’S PREPARATION FOR THE INTERVIEW

Through effective preparation, the interviewer can set the stage for whatever

kind of interviewing situation. It involves these elements.

1.Purpose:

What is the purpose of the interview? What are the expected outcomes what

style is more appropriate, and what atmosphere is best?

2.Physical Arrangements:

Is the physical set up consistent with the purpose? Is privacy adequate? What

distraction should be eliminated?

3.Self-understanding:

Does the interviewer have an awareness of his/her own strength and

weaknesses, prejudices biases and other possible barriers to effective

communication?

4.Understanding the other :

What is known or should be known about the interviewee? What his/her

values, aspirations, motives and background.

5.Knowledge about the job:

He should know the company’s organizational structure, requirements and work

environment of the job about which he is interviewing the applicant. He should

prepare a job analysis for the position so he knows what to look for in an applicant.

6.Nature of information needed:

He should decide what information he needs from each applicant and areas he must

cover in the interview, so that he can determine qualifications a successful

candidate should have regarding applicant values, aspiration, incentives and

background.

•Avoid the impulse to cut the applicant off or the subject abruptly.
•Ask one question at a time.
•Make your question what you need.
• Appear interested in the candidate and give him or her full attention.
•Avoid expressing approval or disapproval of the candidate.
•Use language appropriate to the candidate. Empathies in your candidate.
•Ask no personal questions until after rapport has been established.
•Talk as little as possible. Let the applicant do most of the talking.
•Control the direction of the interview.
•Get a complete work history
•Takes notes of important point.
•Here and see the vocal and physical mannerisms of the applicant as well as listen carefully to all statements.
•Give the candidate an opportunity to ask questions. Answer honestly courteously.
•Sell the job if this is deemed desirable.
•Give the applicant a good impression of the organization before leaving.
•Allow the candidate ample opportunity to do himself or herself full justice.
 
 DO NOT/PITFALLS TO BE AVOIDED BY THE INTERVIEWER

Pitfalls to avoid relate mainly to the following biases, prejudices and weaknesses

within the interviewer: 

1.Halo effect-tendency of the interviewer to form an overall opinion about applicant on the basis of a single aspect of his or her makeup.
2.Stereotype error trap-tendency to categorize the applicant on basis of a few surface clauses.
3.Ideal image error-interviewer’s mental picture of the ideal person may necessary
conclude with the person who can actually be most effective on the job.
4.Personal—of the interviewer poor handshake, biting of fingernails, gum chewing, loud clothes, and poor eye control.
5.Pseudoscience and myth- judging the applicant’s character, mental ability attitudes by means of handwriting, outward features, date of birth, number of letters in the name, line or marks on the palm of the hand, shape and bulges of the skull.
6.Stereotyped mechanical interviewing – same questions in same order,adoption to the individual, no stimulating exchange of ideas, no interplay of attitudes. In turn, the interviewer receives stereotyped answers that don’t appraisal qualifications.
7.Illusion that previous experience. In itself guarantees ability to do the job well. Being swayed because the applicant needs a job – even the necessary qualifications are lacking.
8.Talking too much by interviewer not listening. Poor preparing for interview.
9.Asking inappropriate questions.
10.Being discourteous and rude towards the applicant.
11.Jumping to conclusion.
12.Leaving unexplored gaps.
13.Asking another question when the applicant merely hesitates a moment.
14.Allowing applicant to guide the interview. Depending on memory to conduct

interview ant to evaluate the applicant’s qualifications.

15.Appearing to be critical and cold towards the applicant.
16.Not observing not verbal clues (gestures, voice changes, hesitation)
17.Poor questions:
(a)Leading questions that invite a given response and the wording of which suggest the answers wanted.

(b) Loaded question- use of language that reveals one’s own biases and prejudices; in turn, the applicant will slant answer accordingly.

(c) Dead- and question that elicit only “yes” or “no” answer.

GUIDELINES FOR INTERVIEWEE

From the time the interviewer first sees you until you leave, he or she will be observing you carefully and listening to everything you say and to make the best information, you need to.

1.Prepare for the interview:
Pre-interview planning involve the following

-Study the company:

Nothing can hurt the candidate more can knowing the little about the organization. No knowledge probably indicates no sincerity and seriousness.

-Study yourself:

The next thing is to assist your own abilities. In his connection job requirements and personal qualification need to be matched.

2.Make an appropriate appearance:

The job applicant can’t be prepared for everything but must be adequately groomed so as not to call negative attention to something that may or may not be job related.

In terms of appearance one should,

(a).   Be as clean and well groomed as possible.

(b).   Where appropriate footwear.

(c).    Select appropriate clothes for the interview.

3.Plan your time:

One of the worst things you can do is to be late for an interview. Planning time properly allows you to unwind mentally review the things you plan to accomplish.

4.Show interest :

You can do so by the way you sit a look alert,by eye contact,by questions you ask. 5.Be courteous: Don’t chew gum and don’t smoke unless the interviewer invites you to do so.

6.Be sincere and honest at all times:

If you exaggerate or fabricate details- and if you are caught, interviewer will be less likely to consider you as a favorable candidate for the job.

7.Be yourself:

Don’t try to put on airs. By being yourself, you‘ll be on familiar ground soon more comfortable and be more at ease.

8.Be a good listener:

By doing so, you will be ready to reply a question the interviewer asks, seem interested and also received, and valuable clues from the interviewer’s statements.

9.When desirable explain how could you help the company in this job and why you like doing this kind of work. If useful, pull out of your briefcase some examples of your past work. 
 
10.Be prepared to ask sincere questions about the company because doing so shows interest.
 
11.Never make a slighting reference about a former professor or employer. If you can’t say anything good about a person don’t say anything bad.
 
12.Throughout the interview, smile at appropriate times but don’t maintain an artificial, plastered smile at any time.
 
13.Be alert for sign for the interviewer that the interview is about to end. And when you depart, be sure to thank the interviewer for seeing you.

14.  Tactfully ask some kind of commitment as to when the interviewer will let you know his/her decisions.

QUESTIONING SKILL FOR INTERVIEW

Employers hire people, not qualifications and the purpose  of  the interviewers is to

evaluate  candidate from the company’s point of  view. As the candidate has been

invited based on proper qualifications the interviewer will evaluate the person and

how good he or she fits with the evaluate the person and how good he or she fits

with the company.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS

Interview questions can be closed, open-ended, probing or a combination of  both

1.Closed Questions:

Such questions do not require detailed answer and only factual data are needed in a

Conversational format.

2.Open-ended questions:

Such questions illustrate the strength to the candidate who should tell the

interviewer about his proven quality.

3.Probing questions:

Such questions should be answered with more details about the topic being

discussed and gives an in-depth idea about the candidate.

CLASSIFICATION OF INTERVIEW QUESTIONS:

There are innumerable numbers of questions that can be put by the

interviewer. But all these questions can be summaries into different

categories which are as follows.

 Question related to education.

Such questions a usually asked to fresher which are evaluative as to why the

candidate preferred a particular course to other courses. Here is some

education questions often asked.

(a).   Why did you take a particular course?

(b).    Given the options what other courses would you prefer and why?

(c).     Which part of marketing/finance/human resources you liked the most?

(d).     What motivated you to do a post graduation?

(e).      Tell me about your most liked and disliked subjects.

Most questions about education should be answered with the relevant facts, but at

the same time the candidate should illustrate his strengths that will be in context

with the job. Questions asked about best and worst courses, jobs or experience are

just to test the strengths and weaknesses of the candidate.

Questions relate to experience.

Such questions are usually aimed at the experience holders and are asked to study

the qualities of the candidate regarding his supervisory skills. These questions can

also elicit answers that can gauge the understanding of the job of the candidate.

The candidate should adapt his actual work experience to the job for which of

summer projects or even about a volunteer job that can highlight his managerial,

financial or even marketing skills that can be relevant to the job experience is not

 enough, the candidate should be hold enough to ask as to what challenged the job

others and use his experience to elaborate how he is capable enough to candle the

problems.

Listed below are some of the experience questions.

(a).    Tell me about your previous job.

(b).    What was your most disappointing work experience?

(c).     How do you know that you have done a good job?

(d).     Describe a situation where you handled a problem with it.

(e).      Tell me about your most challenging and lest challenging job.

(f).       What was the most important thing you learned on your last job?

(g).       What type of  people to you like to work with?

(h).        Highlight the major work achievements of your previous company.